Biography

RWP was born in Manchester, in the north of England, in the late 1950s, so he is very old. He really liked the north of England, which by 1965 was hip and had three TV channels, and where he went to a coed school. His parents, for reasons best known to themselves, then yanked him away, to Belfast and then Dublin, which had one TV channel that started up at 6 pm with the Angelus (Catholic call to prayer). He also had to go to an all boys school, where he realized he really missed girls. This probably let him focus on schoolwork, though, and at age 19, after he had finished college, he set off for America, where he still resides. He has a bachelors degree in biochemistry and a Ph.D. from Harvard in biophysics, and has lived also in Mainz, Germany, Setauket NY, and Richland WA. He currently divides his time between Nebraska, Rosslyn VA, and Florida.

Monday, June 22, 2015

We have met the enemy, and it is us: how scientists caused the great amphibian extinction.

Following a remark by Matt Ridley in today's Times, and a little searching, I came across a very disturbing paper about the massive world-wide amphibian extinction currently under way. While some scientists tried first to blame this on the ozone hole (pretty stupid, considering it was also happening in tropical regions which had no ozone hole), and then on climate change, (The Guardian, natch, is still doing this, despite the lack of any significant evidence) there is far more persuasive evidence that it was in fact caused by scientific and medical researchers themselves.

The intermediaries in this tale are a fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, and the African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis. B. dendrobatidis infects and kills frogs, newts, salamanders, etc.. It has spread from Africa, around the world, in the last 75 years. What spread it was the worldwide trade in a couple of frog species: the African bullfrog, and Xenopus. The bullfrog is a pest spread by people who for some unaccountable reason consider frogs not only edible but a gourmet item, but evidence seems to point to Xenopus as principal culprit.

Who spread Xenopus around the world? Why, it was us (scientists, I mean). Scientists have long used amphibians to study developmental biology -- frog eggs develop into tadpoles in the open, and so can be easily studied -- and since World War II, Xenopus has been the organism of choice. It's featured in every modern textbook of developmental biology. It was also used in the 1950s in medical research and pregnancy testing. Large number of frogs were raised and shipped around the Earth, and the surplus were often sold as pets or released into the wild, where there are now populations spread all over the world. But Xenopus carries B. dendrobatidis, and the die-offs closely follow geographically the adoption of Xenopus as a research animal.

So while all the while we scientists were sanctimoniously lecturing our fellow citizens about how our nasty CO2 was killing amphibians, in fact, we ourselves were responsible. (Well some of us, I personally plead innocence to the sanctimony charge)

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